Apollo 11 Lunar Orbit

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Did you know that the Apollo 11 spacecraft entered lunar orbit today in 1969? The crew orbited the moon 30 times. As the spacecraft passed over the Moon’s Sea of Tranquility the astronauts made observations of the designated lunar landing site. They looked for any unexpected obstacles that would change the flight path astronauts Aldrin and Armstrong would make in the Lunar module from the Command Module to the surface of the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Collins stayed to pilot the Command Module. Aldrin and Armstrong moved to the Lunar Module, separated from the Command Module, and began their journey to the Moon.

We hope that you keenly observe the world around you. Remember to think kind thoughts, use kind words, and do kind things. We Love You.

Bonus Facts:
As the Eagle Lunar Module separated from the Command Module, Collins looked over the module to ensure that it was not damaged.

Click here for more about Apollo 11

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Apollo 11 landing site

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Did you know that it took many years to select a landing site for the Apollo 11 Lunar Module? The Lunar Orbiter and Surveyor Programs provided data about the surface of the Moon. Scientists and engineers needed to find an area that would be flat and level and easy to get to (no hills, cliffs, or other obstacles to maneuver around). Scientists and engineers also needed to consider the amount of propellant needed to reach the site and how the Sun was oriented compared to the Moon as this would change visibility and temperatures. Eventually, a site in the Sea of Tranquility was selected as the best option.

We hope that you make careful decisions about for your projects. Remember to think kind thoughts, use kind words, and do kind things. We Love You.

Bonus Facts:
Scientist and engineers were looking for a landing site that was close to the Moon’s equator.

In 1968, scientists announced the 5 potential sites. Apollo 10’s Lunar Module flew by Site 2, and reported that it would be the best site.

The Apollo 11 Lunar Module is still visible in images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera captured in 2009.

Apollo Spacecraft

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Did you know that the Apollo spacecraft carried by Saturn V rocket had 3 sections? The Command Module (CM) “Columbia” was the control center for the spacecraft. It contained the crew cabin and control panels for the navigation and control systems. The Service Module (SM) included the propulsion engine; scientific instruments; and environmental system that controlled things like temperature, water, and oxygen. The SM was connected to the CM until the CM started reentry to Earth. The Lunar Module (LM) “Eagle” was used to travel between the Command Module and the Moon. It contained life support, communication, transportation, and scientific equipment.

We hope that you find a great way to convey your ideas and creativity. Remember to think kind thoughts, use kind words, and do kind things. We Love You.

Bonus Facts:
The Apollo Spacecraft also included a Launch Escape System. In case of a pad fire, imminent explosion, or other emergency, the Launch Escape System would pull and direct the Command Module away from the launch area.

Part of the Lunar Module was left on the Moon when Armstrong and Aldrin returned from the Moon to the Command Module.

Apollo 11 Launch

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Did you know that the first mission to land astronauts on the Moon launched today in 1969? The rocket carried 3 astronauts and the Apollo 11 spacecraft. Almost 1 million people gathered to watch the launch from nearby beaches and highways. More than 3,500 reporters and other media representatives were also present. The launch was televised in 33 countries and millions more around the world listened to radio broadcasts of the launch. 12 minutes after launch, Apollo 11 reached Earth orbit. The Apollo 11 spacecraft orbited the Earth one and a half times before adjusting trajectory towards the Moon.

We hope that you have a blast today! Remember to think kind thoughts, use kind words, and do kind things. We Love You.

Bonus Facts:

A Saturn V rocket was used to launch Apollo 11 from Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

The Apollo 11 mission was the fifth manned mission in the Apollo Program.

Apollo 11 carried 3 astronauts: Neil A Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin Aldrin Jr.

The insignia for the Apollo 11 mission shows the Earth, Moon and an Eagle carrying an olive branch. The insignia was a symbol for peaceful lunar landing. The astronauts’ chose to not put their names on the patch so it would represent all of those who worked on the lunar landing.

Members from the Cabinet, 19 state governors, 40 mayors, 60 ambassadors, 200 congressmen, former President Lyndon B Johnson and Lady Bird Johnson, and Vice President Spiro Agnew. 3,500 media representatives were also present.

An estimated 25 million Americans watched the televised launch.

Click here for more information about the Apollo 11 mission.

diamond in the rough

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Did you know that the diamonds you see in jewelry stores do not naturally have that ‘sparkle and shine’? A raw or ‘rough’ diamond (one that has just been mined and not altered) looks more like a common rock, than one of the most precious gemstones in the world. Initially, diamonds are just translucent; light can pass through them, but they are not clear like glass. Rough diamonds come in different shapes, color, and sizes. Most have uneven, lumpy, and jagged sides. However, with planning, polishing, and hard work with a diamantaire (master diamond cutter), rough diamonds are transformed into dazzling jewels

Thank you for working so hard this year to polish your skills! You are brilliant! Remember to think kind thoughts, use kind words, and do kind things. We Love You.

Bonus Facts:
Crater of Diamonds State Park in Arkansas is one of the only places in the world where the public can search for real diamonds and then keep what they find! Visitors have found more than 33,000 diamonds.

The phrase ‘diamond in the rough’ describes someone who is not great now, but has abundant potential to become great.

The phrase “rough diamond” was first used in 1624.

During the diamond cutting process, a crossworker puts in the main facets of the jewel. A brillianteer adds the final facets.

Camp Sacrifice

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Did you know that Fort Laramie, Wyoming was known as “Camp Sacrifice”? As they travelled along the Oregon Trail, pioneers frequently had to decide what they could and could not continue to carry. Several areas of the trail became notorious ‘dumping grounds’. Pioneers left behind empty barrels; wagon parts; and any other items they could not carry any further such as books, furniture, fancy household goods, and extra clothing. At the start of the Oregon Trail, dishonest merchants tricked naive pioneers into purchasing more supplies than they needed. In 1849, “Camp Sacrifice” found more than 20,000 pounds of unused, rancid bacon outside its walls!

We hope that you plan wisely as you organize your summer projects. Remember to think kind thoughts, use kind words, and do kind things. We Love You.

Bonus Facts:
Also, the Oregon Trail did not have just 1 set route. Guides and group leaders were often trying to find new routes to bypass hazards or to discover shortcuts. Even when a wagon trail traveled along the ‘customary’ route, they seldom traveled in single file. Pioneers spread out to find areas for their animals to graze and to avoid the clouds of dust that other wagons stirred up.

truck

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Did you know that the word ‘truck’ may have come from the Latin word trochus and the Greek word trokhos? Trochus meant “iron hoop” and trokhos meant “wheel”. Around the 1600’s these words evolved to truckle, which described the small wheels or pulleys used to move the heavy frames of a warship’s guns and cannons. In 1774 truckle was also used to describe a cart used to carry heavy loads. In the 1900’s in America, the phrase motor truck was used to describe a vehicle that carries heavy loads. Eventually, this was then shortened to just ‘truck’.

We hope that you keep on trucking along (carry on, carry on!). Remember to think kind thoughts, use kind words, and do kind things. We Love You.

Bonus Facts:
In British English, the word ‘lorry’ is used instead of ‘truck’. Lorry may come from the word ‘lurry’, which is a word form the British railroad. It means to ‘pull or tug’.

Amharic

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Did you know that there are almost 90 different languages spoken in Ethiopia? The 2 most widely used languages are Oromo and Amharic. Amharic is the ‘working language’, the language used to conduct business or official correspondence. Amharic is an alphasyllabic writing system. This means that Amharic has letters (called ‘fidel’), but each letter represents a syllable or sound made from a consonant or consonant-vowel combinations. Amharic has a basic letter shape for consonants; a specific accent mark is added to the base consonant letter to indicate which vowel sound is paired with that consonant. Amharic does not have letters for individual vowels.

We hope that you “eat when food is ready; speak when the time is right”. Remember to think kind thoughts, use kind words, and do kind things. We Love You.

Bonus Facts:
As primary, secondary, and university-level schools teach in Oromo, Amharic, or English some of the languages in Ethiopia are in danger of extinction.

The phrase “abugida”, which is used to describe alphasyllable writing systems originated from Ethiopian.

The glyph or accent mark added to letters are called diacritics.

The Pink and White Terraces

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Did you know that the Pink and White Terraces of New Zealand were once called the “Eighth Wonder of the World”? The Terraces were about 1,000 years old and formed from mineral deposits left behind by water from hydrothermal vents. In 1886, after a series of violent earthquakes, the 3 peaks of Mount Tarawera erupted, throwing ash, smoke, and molten rock about 6 miles into the air. After the eruption the site of the Pink and White Terraces was replaced by a crater 330 feet deep, which filled with water to become the new Lake Rotomanhana. Many thought that the Terraces were destroyed, but in 2011 scientists found the remnants of the Terraces, sunk 30-60 meters below the lake surface.

We hope that you have wonder-filled day! Remember to think kind thoughts, use kind words, and do kind things. We Love You.

Bonus Facts:
The White Terrace had about 50 layers. It was about 25 meters high, 240 meters deep, and covered about 20 acres. The Pink Terrace was about 22 meters high, 100 meters deep and 100 meters wide.

During the eruption, a rift 11 miles long also opened.

150 people were killed in the eruption and many villages and settlements were destroyed.

The new Lake Rotomahana was ten times larger and deeper than the old lake.

Photographers took photos of the terrace, but unfortunately, they were in black and white and did not show the spectacular beauty of the formations. Visitors did sketch and paint the Terrace before they were destroyed.

Sylvanus Morley

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Did you know that Sylvanus Morley was born today in 1883? He was an archaeologist and epigrapher. An epigrapher is someone who studies inscriptions and writing. Sylvanus Morley’s specialty was the Mayan civilization. The Mayans lived in Mesoamerica, which was located in what is now central Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, and other parts of Central America. Sylvanus Morley helped to excavate Chichen Itza and other archeological sites from the Mayan empire. He was a mentor and provided research opportunities for many future Mayan archeologists. He extensively studied the Mayan hieroglyphs found at sites and published a catalog of hieroglyphs that was more than 2,000 pages long.

We hope that you have a picture perfect day! Remember to think kind thoughts, use kind words, and do kind things. We Love You.

Bonus Facts:
Mesoamerica is one of 3 regions of the world where writing developed independently. The other 2 cultures are Sumer and China.

Sylvanus Morley was an archaeologist-spy. While he was doing fieldwork, he also observed conditions and kept an eye out for German or anti-American activity.

Sylvanus Morley also studied the Mayan calendar.

Some say that Sylvanus Morley may have inspired the character Indiana Jones.